Orphan Block

In blockchain technology, an orphan block refers to a valid block that is not included in the main blockchain because it was mined too late or discovered by a competing miner at nearly the same time as another block. This situation can occur due to network latency or the propagation delay of block information across the network.

When multiple miners successfully mine a block at approximately the same time, a temporary fork in the blockchain occurs. However, only one of these blocks can ultimately become part of the main blockchain, while the others become orphaned or discarded. These orphan blocks are still valid and contain legitimate transactions, but they are not considered part of the main chain and do not contribute to the network's consensus.

Orphan blocks are a natural occurrence in blockchain networks and are typically resolved when subsequent blocks are added to the chain. Miners and nodes in the network will generally choose to build upon the longest valid chain, leading to the abandonment of orphaned blocks. Over time, orphan blocks become increasingly rare as the network reaches consensus on the longest chain.

It's worth noting that orphan blocks do not impact the security or integrity of the blockchain. They are simply a byproduct of the decentralized nature of blockchain networks and the distributed consensus mechanism used to validate transactions and create new blocks.

Also study

Immutability refers to the property of being unchanging or unmodifiable. In the context of blockchain technology, immutability means that once data is recorded on the blockchain, it cannot be altered or deleted. This is due to the cryptographic hash function that is used to create a unique digital fingerprint, or hash, of each block in the chain. Any alteration to the data in a block would change the hash, which would be immediately apparent and detected by the network.
In the context of cryptocurrencies and blockchain, a "whitelist" refers to a list of addresses or accounts that are granted specific privileges or permissions within a particular network or platform. The whitelist acts as a filter or permissioning mechanism, allowing only approved entities to access certain features or participate in specific activities.
Sharpe Ratio
The Sharpe ratio is a widely used financial metric that measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment or portfolio. It was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe and is named after him. The Sharpe ratio helps investors evaluate the return they receive relative to the amount of risk they take.
Peer-to-peer (P2P)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) refers to a decentralized model of interaction or exchange between parties without the involvement of intermediaries. In a peer-to-peer network, participants can directly interact, share resources, and conduct transactions with one another.

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